Intensive pain rehabilitation programs have been demonstrated to be effective in helping children with chronic pain return to their levels of function before their pain onset. However, these programs are costly and require substantial time commitments from both patients and their families. According to a study1 by Simons et al, researchers have now identified pain trajectories for children with chronic pain who participate in these programs from up to 1 year following treatment. These findings have allowed researchers to assess baseline factors that appear to be associated with treatment response with regards to improvements in functional ability and pain reduction.
As pain rehabilitation programs may cost upwards of $30,000, clinicians need to “make sure the family is ready for the commitment of time, energy, and openness to learning strategies to live life in the presence of pain,” lead author Laura E. Simons, PhD, associate professor of anesthesiology, perioperative and pain medicine (pediatric) at the Stanford University Medical Center, told Practical Pain Management.
Regaining Functional Ability
The study included 253 patients aged 8 to 18 years (mean age of 14.5 years) with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Patients were considered eligible for the program if they had not progressed through other outpatient physical and cognitive behavioral therapies. Rehabilitation programs included physical, occupational and psychological therapies for 8 hours a day, 5 days a week, with the typical stay lasting between three to four weeks. Patients attended follow-up appointments at 1, 4 and 12 months post-discharge.
Pain intensity was assessed using an 11-point scale (0 to 10). Functional disability was assessed using the 15-item Functional Disability Inventory. The researchers used “disability and pain as primary markers of treatment gains, [but] examined a number of other factors over time,” said Dr. Simons. Other useful markers can include missed schools days; quality of life; depression measures; frequency, potency and accumulated doses of pain medications; and effects on daily routines, Tala Dajani, MD, assistant professor of clinical science education at the ATSU School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona, told Practical Pain Management.
Dr. Simons and her co-authors reported that 88% of the children studied were able to regain day-to-day functional ability. Almost three-quarters (73%) reported mild to no pain at one-month follow-up, and these improvements were maintained at one year. Most importantly, they found that older age, higher pain scores, fewer social difficulties, higher anxiety levels and lower readiness to change differentiated the children who responded well to intensive programs from those who did not, with regards to pain. With regard to functional ability, researchers did not find any baseline characteristics to distinguish between responders and non-responders.